FAQ - Legislation

Following are questions relating to directives and legal issues concerning emissions :

Why do we need to update our engine technologies?

Since 1999, the European Commission has been working to address emissions through European Directive 97/68/EC. The Directive focuses particularly on Particulate Matter (PM) and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) and has been defined and amended in various Stages. Stage IV has come into effect in 2014 and will almost eliminate NOx. This offers us an opportunity to strengthen our environmental approach while continuing to provide our customers with products that meet their daily demands.

What technology options are available in order to achieve the demanding Stage IV emission limits?

There are several options for achieving reduction of NOx and PM. Each of them has its advantages and also its drawbacks. For example, technologies of in-engine NOx reduction generally lead to higher PM emission levels, while in-engine technologies of PM reduction lead to higher NOx emissions.

What is PM?

PM (Particulate Matter) consists mainly of soot (carbon particles) and residues of lubrication oil.

What is Nox?

NOx (Nitrogen Oxides) are formed during combustion when Oxygen and Nitrogen react at high temperatures and under high pressure.

What is the difference between Stage IV (Europe) and Tier 4 Final (North America)?

Tier 4 is the final step the US EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) is implementing as part of its non-road diesel rules to reduce pollutant emissions. Introduction of Tier 4 spans from 2014 to 2015. As in previous emission Tiers, the reduction of NOx and PM is the primary objective. The goals set by Tier 4 are a NOx limit of 0.4 g/kWh and a PM limit of 0.02 g/kWh.

Stage IV is a part of regulations applied to non-road vehicles, specified by Directive 97/68/EC. Stage IV also introduces a very stringent NOx limit of 0.4 g/kWh and PM limit of 0.025 g/kWh.

What are the differences between Stages IIIA, IIIB and IV?

Compared to Stage IIIA, Stage IIIB required a further reduction of 90 % in PM and 50 % in NOx. Stage IV reduces NOx by an additional 80 %, almost completely eliminating both PM and NOx emissions.